The GMAT Pill Official Guide 2016 Tracker

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Critical Reasoning(CR) : OG Practice Test
OG2016   CR Practice #5.
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that f...(Login to view remaining section)
Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater.
Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced.
Conventional wastewater purification systems have not been fully successful in killing bacteria at cold temperatures.
During times of warm weather, when it is not in use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires relatively little maintenance.
Places where the winters are cold rarely have a problem of water shortage.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #6.
Homeowners aged 40 to 50 are more likely to purcha...(Login to view remaining section)
fails to distinguish between purchasing and consuming
does not supply information about homeowners in age groups other than 40 to 50
depends on popular belief rather than on documented research findings
does not specify the precise amount of ice cream purchased by any demographic group
discusses ice cream rather than more nutritious and healthful foods
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #7.
Suncorp, a new corporation with limited funds, has...(Login to view remaining section)
The soil of the Amazon forest is very rich in nutrients that are important in the development of grazing lands.
Cattle-ranching operations that are located in tropical climates are more profitable than cattle-ranching operations that are located in cold-weather climates.
In certain districts, profits made from cattle ranching are more heavily taxed than profits made from any other industry.
Some of the cattle that are raised on land cleared in the Amazon are killed by wildcats.
The amount of money required to begin a rubber-tapping operation is twice as high as the amount needed to begin a cattle ranch.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #9.
Traverton's city council wants to minimize the cit...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether the expected service life of LED arrays is at least as long as that of the currently used incandescent bulbs
Whether any cities have switched from incandescent lights in their traffic signals to lighting elements other than LED arrays
Whether the company from which Traverton currently buys incandescent bulbs for traffic signals also sells LED arrays
Whether Traverton's city council plans to increase the number of traffic signal lights in Traverton
Whether the crews that currently replace incandescent bulbs in Traverton's traffic signals know how to convert the existing fixtures so as to accept LED arrays
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #11.
Parland's alligator population has been declining ...(Login to view remaining section)
The decline in the alligator population has meant that fishers can work in some parts of lakes and rivers that were formerly too dangerous.
Over the last few years, Parland's commercial fishing enterprises have increased the number of fishing boats they use.
The main predator of these fish is another species of fish on which alligators also prey.
Many Parlanders who hunt alligators do so because of the high market price of alligator skins, not because of the threat alligators pose to the fish population.
In several neighboring countries through which Parland's rivers also flow, alligators are at risk of extinction as a result of extensive hunting.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #12.
A company is considering changing its policy conce...(Login to view remaining section)
work without interruption from other employees
consult at least once a day with employees from other companies
submit their work for a supervisor's eventual approval
interact frequently with each other throughout the entire workday
undertake projects that take several days to complete
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #13.
The amount of time it takes for most of a worker's...(Login to view remaining section)
The company will develop a program to offer selected employees the opportunity to receive training six years after they were originally hired.
The company will increase its investment in AMT every year for a period of at least five years.
The company will periodically survey its employees to determine how the introduction of AMT has affected them.
Before the introduction of AMT, the company will institute an educational program to inform its employees of the probable consequences of the introduction of AMT.
The company will ensure that it can offer its employees any training necessary for meeting their job requirements.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #14.
While many people think of genetic manipulation of...(Login to view remaining section)
Plant varieties used as food by some are used as ornamentals by others.
The wholesale prices of a given crop decrease as the supply of it increases.
Crops once produced exclusively for human consumption are often now used for animal feed.
Short plants are less vulnerable to strong wind and heavy rains.
Nations with large industrial sectors tend to consume more processed grains.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #15.
A certain automaker aims to increase its market sh...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether the automaker's competitors are likely to respond by offering deep discounts on their own products
Whether the advertisements will be created by the manufacturer's current advertising agency
Whether some of the automaker's models will be more deeply discounted than others
Whether the automaker will be able to cut costs sufficiently to maintain profit margins even when the discounts are in effect
Whether an alternative strategy might enable the automaker to enhance its profitability while holding a constant or diminishing share of the market
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #16.
In virtually any industry, technological improveme...(Login to view remaining section)
It offers a conclusion that is no more than a paraphrase of one of the pieces of information provided in its support.
It presents as evidence in support of a claim information that is inconsistent with other evidence presented in support of the same claim.
It takes one possible cause of a condition to be the actual cause of that condition without considering any other possible causes.
It takes a condition to be the effect of something that happened only after the condition already existed.
It makes a distinction that presupposes the truth of the conclusion that is to be established.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #17.
The Maxilux car company's design for its new luxur...(Login to view remaining section)
In any Maxilux model, the spare tire is exactly the same make and model as the tires that are mounted on the wheels.
Rubco holds exclusive contracts to supply Maxilux with the tires for a number of other models made by Maxilux.
The production facilities for the Max 100 and those for the tires to be supplied by Rubco are located very near each other.
When people who have purchased a carefully designed luxury automobile need to replace a worn part of it, they almost invariably replace it with a part of exactly the same make and type.
When Maxilux awarded the tire contract to Rubco, the only criterion on which Rubco's bid was clearly ahead of its competitors' bids was price.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #18.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
among the bicyclists included in the study's sample of head injuries, only a very small proportion had been wearing a helmet at the time of their accident
even those bicyclists who regularly wear helmets have a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford
a helmet that included protection for the temples would have to be somewhat larger and heavier than current helmets
the bone in the temple area is relatively thin and impacts in that area are thus very likelyto cause brain injury
bicyclists generally land on their arm or shoulder when they fall to the side, which reduces the likelihood of severe impacts on the side of the head
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #19.
Wood smoke contains dangerous toxins that cause ch...(Login to view remaining section)
The amount of dangerous toxins contained in wood smoke is much less than the amount contained in an equal volume of automobile exhaust.
Within the jurisdiction covered by the proposed legislation, most heating and cooking is done with oil or natural gas.
Smoke produced by coal-burning stoves is significantly more toxic than smoke from woodburning stoves.
No significant beneficial effect on air quality would result if open-air fires were banned within the jurisdiction covered by the proposed legislation.
In valleys where wood is used as the primary heating fuel, the concentration of smoke results in poor air quality.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #20.
Hunter: Many people blame hunters alone for the de...(Login to view remaining section)
It is the main conclusion of the argument.
It is a finding that the argument seeks to explain.
It is an explanation that the argument concludes is correct.
It provides evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument.
It introduces a judgment that the argument opposes.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #22.
Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise...(Login to view remaining section)
the side effects of synthetic melatonin might be different from those of naturally produced melatonin
it is possible that the physician does not believe that melatonin has been conclusively shown to be effective
sleep disorders, if left untreated, might lead to serious medical complications
the side effects of a medication can take some time to manifest themselves
known risks can be weighed against known benefits, but unknown risks cannot
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #23.
Plan: Concerned about the welfare of its senior ci...(Login to view remaining section)
The majority of senior citizens whose financial position has not improved rely entirely on the government pension for their income.
The Runagian banking system is so inefficient that cashing a pension check can take as much as three weeks.
The prices of goods and services that meet the special needs of many senior citizens have increased at a rate much higher than the rate of inflation.
The pension increase occurred at a time when the number of Runagians age sixty-five and older who were living below the poverty level was at an all-time high.
The most recent pension increase was only the second such increase in the last ten years.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #24.
Hollywood restaurant is replacing some of its stan...(Login to view remaining section)
One of the taller tables takes up less floor space than one of the standard tables.
Diners seated on stools typically do not linger over dinner as long as diners seated at standard tables.
Since the restaurant will replace only some of its standard tables, it can continue to accommodate customers who do not care for the taller tables.
Few diners are likely to avoid the restaurant because of the new seating arrangement.
The standard tables being replaced by tall tables would otherwise have to be replaced with new standard tables at a greater expense.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #25.
A major network news organization experienced a dr...(Login to view remaining section)
The other major network news organizations reported similar reductions in viewership during the same week.
The viewers who registered complaints with the network were regular viewers of the news organization's programs.
Major network news organizations publicly attribute drops in viewership to their own reports only when they receive complaints about those reports.
This was not the first time that this network news organization has aired a controversial report on the economy that has inspired viewers to complain to the network.
Most network news viewers rely on network news broadcasts as their primary source of information regarding the economy.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #26.
Only: a reduction of 10 percent in the number of s...(Login to view remaining section)
Turning Hevelia into a full-service airport would require not only substantial construction at the airport itself, but also the construction of new access highways.
A second largely undeveloped airstrip close to Greentown airport would be a more attractive alternative than Hevelia for many passengers who now use Greentown.
Hevelia airstrip lies in a relatively undeveloped area but would, if it became a full-service airport, be a magnet for commercial and residential development.
If an airplane has to wait to land, the extra jet fuel required adds significantly to the airline's costs.
Several airlines use Greentown as a regional hub, so that most flights landing at Greentown have many passengers who then take different flights to reach their final destinations.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #27.
For similar cars and comparable drivers, automobil...(Login to view remaining section)
the level of traffic congestion in Greatport with the level of traffic congestion in Fairmont
the cost of repairing collision damage in Greatport with the cost of repairing collision damage in Fairmont
the rates Greatport residents pay for other forms of insurance with the rates paid for similar insurance by residents of Fairmont
the condition of Greatport's roads and streets with the condition of Fairmont's roads and streets
the cost of collision-damage insurance in Greatport and Fairmont with that in other cities
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #28.
The tulu, a popular ornamental plant, does not rep...(Login to view remaining section)
Releasing a general announcement that tulu plants less than 30 weeks old cannot be effectively tested for fungal rot
Requiring all tulu plants less than 30 weeks old to be labeled as such
Researching possible ways to test tulu plants less than 24 weeks old for fungal rot
Ensuring that tulu plants not be sold before they are 30 weeks old
Quarantining all tulu plants from horticultural companies at which any case of fungal rot has been detected until those tulu plants can be tested for fungal rot
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #29.
Last year a record number of new manufacturing job...(Login to view remaining section)
The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is that main conclusion.
The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn in order to support that main conclusion.
The first is an objection that the argument rejects; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is an objection that the argument rejects; the second presents a conclusion that could be drawn if that objection were allowed to stand.
The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes; the second is a claim advanced in support of the main conclusion of the argument.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #31.
The Eurasian ruffe, a fish species inadvertently i...(Login to view remaining section)
The ruffe has spiny fins that make it unattractive as prey.
Ruffe generally feed at night, but most recreational fishing on the Great Lakes is done during daytime hours.
Most people who fish recreationally on the Great Lakes are interested in the preservation of the lake whitefish because it is a highly prized game fish.
The ruffe is one of several nonnative species in the Great Lakes whose existence threatens the survival of lake whitefish populations there.
The bait that most people use when fishing for whitefish on the Great Lakes is not attractive to ruffe.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #32.
Last year the rate of inflation was 1.2 percent, b...(Login to view remaining section)
The inflation figures were computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than all of the available data.
Last year a dip in oil prices brought inflation temporarily below its recent stable annual level of 4 percent.
Increases in the pay of some workers are tied to the level of inflation, and at an inflation rate of 4 percent or above, these pay raises constitute a force causing further inflation.
The 1.2 percent rate of inflation last year represented a 10-year low.
Government intervention cannot affect the rate of inflation to any significant degree.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #33.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
many nonfunctioning satellites remain in orbit for years
for satellites that have ceased to function, repairing them while they are in orbit would be prohibitively expensive
there are no known previous instances of satellites' having been exploded on purpose
the only way to make telescope observations without any; interference from debris in orbit is to use telescopes launched into extremely high orbits around the Earth j
a greatly increased number of small particles in Earth's orbit would result in a blanket of reflections that would make certain valuable telescope observations impossible
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #34.
Thyrian lawmaker: Thyria's Cheese Importation Boar...(Login to view remaining section)
rejecting the lawmaker's argument while proposing that the standards according to which the board inspects imported cheese should be raised
providing evidence that the lawmaker's argument has significantly overestimated the cost of maintaining the board
objecting to the lawmaker's introducing into the discussion factors that are not strictly economic
pointing out a benefit of maintaining the board, which the lawmaker's argument has failed to consider
shifting the discussion from the argument at hand to an attack on the integrity of the cheese inspectors
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #35.
The growing popularity of computer-based activitie...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether a large majority of the survey respondents reported watching television regularly
Whether the amount of time spent watching television is declining among people who report that they rarely or never use computers
Whether the type of television programs a person watches tends to change as the amount of time spent per week using computers increases
Whether a large majority of the computer owners in the survey reported spending increasing amounts of time per week using computers
Whether the survey respondents' reports of time spent using computers included time spent using computers at work
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #36.
Crowding on Mooreville's subway frequently leads t...(Login to view remaining section)
By changing maintenance schedules, the Transit Authority can achieve the 5 percent increase in train trips without purchasing any new subway cars.
The Transit Authority also plans a 5 percent increase in the number of bus trips on routes that connect to subways.
For most commuters who use the subway system, there is no practical alternative public transportation available.
Most of the projected increase in ridership is expected to occur in off-peak hours when trains are now sparsely used.
The 5 percent increase in the number of train trips can be achieved without an equal increase in Transit Authority operational costs.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #38.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
the life of Prince Sviatov is not the subject of any other medieval Moringian texts
the author of Sviatovin intended it to provide as accurate a report about Prince Sviatov's exploits as possible
the diagram accurately represents the composition of Sviatov's family at the time Sviatovin was written
Sviatovin is the earliest Moringian text whose composition can be dated to within a few years
Sviatovin was not written by Sviatov's father himself
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #40.
If the county continues to collect residential tra...(Login to view remaining section)
Residents will reduce the amount of trash they put out for collection by reducing the number of products they buy.
The collection fee will not significantly affect the purchasing power of most residents, even if their households do not reduce the amount of trash they put out.
The collection fee will not induce residents to dump their trash in the parklands illegally.
The beauty of county parkland is an important issue for most of the county's residents.
Landfills outside the county's borders could be used as dumping sites for the county's trash.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #42.
Trancorp currently transports all its goods to Bur...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether transportation by train and barge would be substantially less expensive than transportation by truck
Whether there are boats that can make the trip between the mainland and Burland faster than barges can
Whether loading the freight cars onto barges is very time consuming
Whether the average number of vehicles traveling over the bridge into Burland has been relatively constant in recent years
Whether most trucks transporting goods into Burland return to the mainland empty
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #44.
Which of the following best completes the passage ...(Login to view remaining section)
many users who illegally copy programs never find any use for them
most people who illegally copy programs would not purchase them even if purchasing them were the only 1 way to obtain them
even if the computer industry received all the revenue it claims to be losing, it would still be experiencing financial difficulties.
the total market value of all illegal copies is low in comparison to the total revenue of the computer industry ,
'the number of programs that are frequently copied illegally is low in comparison to the number of programs available for sale
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #45.
In the last decade there has been a significant de...(Login to view remaining section)
On average, people consume 30 percent less coffee today than they did 10 years ago.
Heavy coffee drinkers may have mild withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, for a day or so after significantly decreasing their coffee consumption.
Sales of specialty types of coffee have held steady as sales of regular brands have declined.
The consumption of fruit juices and caffeine-free herbal teas has increased over the past decade.
Coffee prices increased steadily in the past decade because of unusually severe frosts in coffee-growing nations.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #46.
Which of the following best completes the passage ...(Login to view remaining section)
in a crowded market widely differing prices will be charged for products that are essentially the same as each other
as a market becomes less crowded as suppliers leave, the profits of the remaining suppliers will tend to decrease
each supplier in a crowded market will try to convince consumers that its product differs significantly from its competitors' products.
when consumers are unable to distinguish the products in a crowded market, consumers will judge that the higher-priced products are of higher quality
suppliers in crowded markets will have more incentive to reduce prices and thus increase sales than to introduce innovations that would distinguish their product from their competitors' products
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #47.
Installing scrubbers in smokestacks and switching ...(Login to view remaining section)
Switching to cleaner-burning fuel will not be more expensive than installing scrubbers.
Northern Power can choose from among various kinds of scrubbers, some of which are more effective than others.
Northern Power is not necessarily committed to reducing harmful emissions from its plants.
Harmful emissions from Northern Power's plants cannot be reduced more by using both methods together than by the installation of scrubbers alone.
Aside from harmful emissions from the smokestacks of its plants, the activities of Northern Power do not cause significant air pollution.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #50.
Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of...(Login to view remaining section)
All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.
Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.
All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.
Many anthropologists who study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies.
Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are importantly different from ancient forager societies.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #51.
Contrary to earlier predictions, demand for sugarc...(Login to view remaining section)
Many countries that are large consumers of sugarcane increased their production of sugarcane-based ethanol, yet their overall consumption of sugarcane decreased.
Sugarcane growers have saved money on wages by switching from paying laborers an hourly wage to paying them by the amount harvested.
The price of oil, the major energy source used by sugarcane growers in harvesting their crops, dropped by over 20 percent.
Many small sugarcane growers joined together to form an association of sugarcane producers and began to buy supplies at low group rates.
Rainfall in sugarcane-growing regions was higher than it had been during the previous year, allowing the growers to save money on expensive artificial irrigation.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #52.
Although computers can enhance people's ability to...(Login to view remaining section)
Passive activities such as watching television and listening to music do not hinder the development of communication skills in children.
Most children have other opportunities, in addition to after-school hours, in which they can choose whether to play computer games or to interact with other people.
Children who do not spend all of their afterschool hours playing computer games spend at least some of that time talking with other people.
Formal instruction contributes little or nothing to children's acquisition of communication skills.
The mental skills developed through playing computer games do not contribute significantly to children's intellectual development.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #54.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
the smaller-than-average size of a winter wheat harvest this year would not be compensated for by higher winter wheat prices
new crops of spring wheat must be planted earlier than the time at which standing crops of winter wheat are ready to be harvested
the spring wheat that farmers in the Davison River region plant is well adapted to the soil of the region
spring wheat has uses that are different from those of winter wheat
planting spring wheat is more profitable than planting certain other crops, such as rye
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #56.
Certain genetically modified strains of maize prod...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether the natural insecticide is as effective against maize-eating insects as commercial insecticides typically used on maize are
Whether the pollen of genetically modified maize contains as much insecticide as other parts of these plants
Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the growing season when maize is releasing pollen
Whether insects that feed on genetically modified maize plants are likely to be killed by insecticide from the plant's pollen
Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields ?
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #59.
Rye sown in the fall and plowed into the soil in e...(Login to view remaining section)
consider that there might be minor, quick growing crops that do mature in forty-five days or less
identify any alternative method of weed control that could be used instead of the method it rejects
distinguish among the various kinds of synthetic herbicides
allow for the possibility of combining the two weed-control methods it mentions
allow for the possibility that plants other than rye, handled the same way, might have the same effect
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #61.
One variety of partially biodegradable plastic bev...(Login to view remaining section)
Both partially biodegradable and non biodegradable plastic beverage containers can be crushed completely flat by refuse compactors.
The partially biodegradable plastic beverage containers. are made with more plastic than comparable nonbiodegradable ones in order to compensate for the weakening effect of the bonding agents.
Many consumers are ecology-minded and prefer to buy a product sold in the partially biodegradable plastic beverage containers rather than in nonbiodegradable containers, even if the price is higher.
The manufacturing process for the partially biodegradable plastic beverage containers results in less plastic waste than the manufacturing process for nonbiodegradable plastic beverage containers.
Technological problems with recycling currently prevent the reuse as food or beverage containers of the plastic from either type of plastic beverage container.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #62.
Most employees in the computer industry move from ...(Login to view remaining section)
Some people employed in the computer industry change jobs if they become bored with their current projects.
A hierarchical work environment hinders the cooperative exchange of ideas that computer industry employees consider necessary for their work.
Many of Summit's senior employees had previously worked at only one other computer company.
In a nonhierarchical work environment, people avoid behavior that might threaten group harmony and thus avoid discussing with their colleagues any dissatisfaction they might have with their jobs.
The cost of living near Summit is relatively low compared to areas in which some other computer companies are located.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #64.
Which of the following; most logically completes t...(Login to view remaining section)
the number of facilities capable of treating respiratory ailments is not likely to increase
reducing emissions even further than planned would necessitate decreasing production at Woodco
it is difficult to make accurate, long-term predictions about emissions
not all respiratory ailments are caused by airborne pollutants
three new plywood manufacturing plants are about to go into production in Groverston
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #66.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
each of the last two years produced record breaking pecan yields
the quality of this year's pecan crop is no worse than the quality of the pecan crops of the previous five years
pecan prices have not been subject to sharp fluctuations in recent years
for some pecan growers, this year's crop was no smaller than last year's
the practice of holding back part of one year's crop had not yet become widespread the last time the pecan crop was as small as it was this year
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #68.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
ant flies do not attack black ants other than Loma ants
Loma ants are less effective than many bird species in competing with rodents for seeds
certain other species of black ants are more effective than Loma ants in competing with rodents for seeds
the sting of Loma ants can also be fatal to rodents
some pesticides that could be used to control Loma ants are harmful to the environment
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #71.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
produce their crop over an extended period of time, as summer squash does
produce large seeds that are easy to treat individually, as corn and beans do
provide, as they approach maturity, shade dense enough to keep weeds from growing
are typically grown in large tracts devoted to a single crop
are cultivated specifically for the seed they produce rather than for their leaves or roots
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #72.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
genetic factors could account for the lack of increase of blood pressure with age among such people
people eating high-salt diets and living from birth in cities in industrialized societies generally have a tendency to have high blood pressure
it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in a city in an industrialized country
there are changes in other aspects of diet when such people move to the city
salt is a necessity for human life, and death can occur when the body loses too much salt
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #73.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
the treatise from the early 1500s misidentifies the composers of some of the musical works it considers
the author of the treatise from the early 1500s had no very strong evidence on which to base the identification of Pescard as the composer of Lacrimae
there are works that can conclusively be attributed to Pescard that are not even mentioned in the treatise from the early 1500s
the later treatises probably had no source for their attribution other than the earlier treatise
no known treatises from the 1600s identify Pescard as the composer of Lacrimae
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #74.
When trying to identify new technologies that prom...(Login to view remaining section)
If a new technology succeeds, the commercial benefits accrue largely to the producers, not to the buyers, of that technology.
People who promote the virtues of a new technology typically fail to consider that the old technology that is currently in use continues to be improved, often substantially.
Investors are unlikely to invest substantial amounts of capital in a company whose own managers are skeptical about the commercial prospects of a new technology they are developing.
The potential buyers for not-yet-available technologies can seldom be reliably identified.
The developers of a new technology are generally no better positioned than its potential buyers to gauge how rapidly the new technology can be efficiently mass-produced.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #75.
In order to withstand tidal currents, juvenile hor...(Login to view remaining section)
Tidal currents do not themselves dislodge barnacles from the shells of horseshoe crabs.
Barnacles most readily attach themselves to horseshoe crabs in areas where tidal currents are weakest.
The strength of the tidal currents in a given location varies widely over the course of a day.
A very large barnacle population can significantly decrease the ability of a horseshoe crab to find food.
Until they are fully grown, horseshoe crabs shed their shells and grow new ones several times a year.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #78.
When there is less rainfall than normal, the water...(Login to view remaining section)
During periods of extreme drought, the populations of some of the species that feed on algae tend to fall.
The more slowly water moves, the more conducive its temperature is to the growth of algae.
When algae populations reach very high levels, conditions within the river can become toxic for some of the other species that normally live there.
Australian rivers dry up completely for short intervals in periods of extreme drought.
Except during periods, of extreme drought, algae, levels tend to be higher; in rivers in which the flow has been controlled by damming than in rivers that flow freely.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #80.
To protect certain fledgling industries, the gover...(Login to view remaining section)
Profit margins in those industries were not high enough to absorb the rise in costs mentioned above.
Those industries had to contend with the fact that other countries banned imports from Country Z.
Those industries succeeded in expanding the domestic market for their products.
Steps to offset rising materials costs by decreasing labor costs were taken in those industries.
Those industries started to move into export markets that they had previously judged unprofitable.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #82.
A prominent investor who holds a large stake in th...(Login to view remaining section)
The first states the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence to undermine the support for the position being opposed.
The first states the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second is evidence that has been used to support the position being opposed.
The first states the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second states the conclusion of the argument as a whole.
The first is evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides information to undermine the force of that evidence.
The first is evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second states the conclusion of the argument as a whole.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #83.
Several industries have recently switched at least...(Login to view remaining section)
Many of the industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies have increased their output.
Less fossil fuel was used to manufacture the machinery employed in the new technologies than was originally used to manufacture the machinery employed in the older technologies.
More electricity is used by those industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies than by those industries that have not switched.
Some of the industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies still use primarily technologies that are powered by fossil fuels.
The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricity needed to power the new technologies is less than the amount that would have been used to power the older technologies.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #85.
As a construction material, bamboo is as strong as...(Login to view remaining section)
Buildings constructed of bamboo are less likely to suffer earthquake damage than are steel and concrete buildings.
Bamboo is unsuitable as a building material for multistory buildings.
In order to protect it from being damaged by termites and beetles, bamboo must be soaked, at some expense, in a preservative.
In some tropical areas, bamboo is used to make the scaffolding that is used during large construction projects.
Bamboo growing in an area where land values are increasing is often cleared to makeway for construction.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #86.
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, in...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective
Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops
Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #87.
Community activist: If Morganville wants to keep i...(Login to view remaining section)
Have community activists in other towns successfully campaigned against the opening of a SaveAII store on the outskirts of their towns?
Do a large percentage of the residents of Morganville currently do almost all of their shopping at stores in Morganville?
In towns with healthy central shopping districts, what proportion of the stores in those districts suffer bankruptcy during a typical five-year period?
What proportion of the employees at the SaveAII store on the outskirts of Morganville will be drawn from Morganville?
Do newly opened SaveAII stores ever lose money during their first five years of operation?
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #88.
Debater: The average amount of overtime per month ...(Login to view remaining section)
It takes for granted that the manufacturing division is a typical division of the corporation with regard to the average amount of overtime its employees work each month.
It takes for granted that if a certain average amount of overtime is worked each month by each employee of the Haglut Corporation, then approximately the same amount of overtime must be worked each month by each employee of the manufacturing division.
It confuses a claim from which the argument's conclusion about the Haglut Corporation would necessarily follow with a claim that would follow from the argument's conclusion only with a high degree of probability.
It overlooks the possibility that even if, on average, a certain amount of overtime is worked by the members of some group, many members of that group may work no overtime at all.
It overlooks the possibility that even if most employees of the corporation1 work some overtime each month, any one corporate employee may, in some months, work no overtime.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #89.
In the past the country of Malvernia has relied he...(Login to view remaining section)
When, if ever, will production of oil in Malvernia outstrip production of natural gas?
Is Malvernia among the countries that rely most on imported oil?
What proportion of Malvernia's total energy needs is met by hydroelectric, solar, and nuclear power?
Is the amount of oil used each year in Malvernia for generating electricity and fuel for transportation increasing?
Have any existing oil burning heating systems in Malvernia already been converted to natural gas burning heating systems?
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #90.
Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in ele...(Login to view remaining section)
The number of school nurses employed by Renston's elementary schools has not decreased over the past ten years.
Children who are allergic to the chemicals are no more likely than other children to have allergies to other substances.
Children who have allergic reactions to the chemicals are not more likely to be sent to a school nurse now than they were ten years ago.
The chemicals are not commonly used as cleaners or pesticides in houses and apartment buildings in Renston.
Children attending elementary school do not make up a larger proportion of Renston's population now than they did ten years ago.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #91.
Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions...(Login to view remaining section)
The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
The first and the second each provide evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish.
The first provides evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #92.
Normally, the pineal gland governs a person's slee...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether melatonin supplements help people who have difficulty maintaining a 24-hour sleep cycle to establish such a pattern
Whether the melatonin levels of most totally blind people who successfully maintain a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle change in response to changes in exposure to light and darkness
Whether melatonin is the only substance secreted by the pineal gland
Whether most people who do not have a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle nevertheless have a cycle of consistent duration
Whether there are any people with normal vision whose melatonin levels respond abnormally to periods of light and darkness
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #93.
In countries where automobile insurance includes c...(Login to view remaining section)
The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second is a conclusion that has been based on that claim.
The first is a claim that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument accepts; the second is that conclusion.
The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion for which the argument provides further evidence; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is a finding whose implications are at issue in the argument; the second is a claim presented in order to argue against deriving certain implications from that finding.
The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence presented to establish that the finding is accurate.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #95.
Commentator: The theory of trade retaliation state...(Login to view remaining section)
No country actually acts according to the theory of trade retaliation.
No country should block any of its markets to foreign trade.
Trade disputes should be settled by international tribunal.
For any two countries, at least one has some market closed to the other.
Countries close their markets to foreigners to protect domestic producers.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #96.
Hotco oil burners, designed to be used in asphalt ...(Login to view remaining section)
Another manufacturer's introduction to the market of a similarly efficient burner
The Clifton Asphalt plant's need for more than one new burner
Very poor efficiency in the Clifton Asphalt plant's old burner
A decrease in the demand for asphalt
A steady increase in the price of oil beginning soon after the new burner is installed
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #98.
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve onl...(Login to view remaining section)
forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence
reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory
using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar structures in creatures now extinct
pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small creatures
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #99.
Keith: Compliance with new government regulations ...(Login to view remaining section)
demonstrating that Keith's conclusion is based on evidence that is not relevant to the issue at hand
challenging the plausibility oi the evidence that serves as the basis for Keith's argument
suggesting that Keith's argument overlooks a mitigating consequence
reinforcing Keith's conclusion by supplying a complementary interpretation of the evidence Keith cites
agreeing with the main conclusion of Keith's argument but construing that conclusion as grounds for optimism rather than for pessimism
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #101.
Many people suffer an allergic reaction to certain...(Login to view remaining section)
These winemakers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by adding sulfites by means that do not involve adding any potentially allergenic substances to their wine.
Not all forms of sulfite are equally likely to produce the allergic reaction.
Wine is the only beverage to which sulfites are commonly added.
Apart from sulfites, there are no substances commonly present in wine that give rise to an allergic reaction.
Sulfites are not naturally present in the wines produced by these winemakers in amounts large enough to produce an allergic reaction in someone who drinks these wines.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #102.
Businesses are suffering because of a lack of mone...(Login to view remaining section)
When levels of personal retirement savings increase, consumer borrowing always increases correspondingly.
The increased tax revenue the government would receive as a result of business expansion would not offset the loss in revenue from personal income taxes during the first year of the plan.
Even with tax incentives, some people will choose not to increase their levels of retirement savings.
Bankers generally will not continue to lend money to businesses whose prospective earnings are insufficient to meet their loan repayment schedules.
The modified tax structure would give all taxpayers, regardless of their incomes, the same tax savings for a given increase in their retirement savings.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #103.
A new law gives ownership of patents -- documents ...(Login to view remaining section)
Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.
Corporate sponsors of research in university, facilities are entitled to tax credits under .new federal tax-code guidelines.
Research scientists at Logos University have few or no teaching responsibilities and participate little if at all in the undergraduate programs in their field.
Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profitmaking corporations.
Logos University is unlikely to attract corporate sponsorship of its scientific research.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #104.
Environmentalist: The commissioner of the Fish and...(Login to view remaining section)
The use of technology is the reason for the increasing encroachment of people on nature.
It is possible to determine how many fish are in the sea in some way other than by catching fish.
The proportion of marine fish that are caught is as high as the proportion of rain forest trees that are cut down each year.
Modern technologies waste resources by catching inedible fish.
Marine fish continue to be an endangered resource.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #105.
Since it has become known that several of a bank's...(Login to view remaining section)
The first describes evidence that has been taken as supporting a conclusion; the second gives a reason for questioning that support.
The first describes evidence that has been taken as supporting a conclusion; the second states a contrary conclusion that is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first provides evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument; the second states that conclusion.
The first describes the circumstance that the argument as a whole seeks to explain; the second gives the explanation that the argument seeks to establish.
The first describes the circumstance that the argument as a whole seeks to explain; the second provides evidence in, support of the explanation that the argument seeks to establish.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #107.
In the country of Veltria, the past two years' bro...(Login to view remaining section)
The total amount of credit extended to retailers by clothing wholesalers increased between the first year of the recession and the second year.
Between the first and second years of the recession, clothing retailers in Veltria saw many of their costs, rent and utilities in particular, increase
Of the considerable number of clothing retailers in Veltria who were having financial difficulties before the start of the recession, virtually all were forced to go out of business during its first year.
Clothing retailers in Veltria attempted to stimulate sales in the second year of the recession by discounting merchandise.
Relatively recession-proof segments of the clothing trade, such as work clothes, did not suffer any decrease in sales during the first year of the recession.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #108.
Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by ...(Login to view remaining section)
The effect noted in the studies is not limited to patrons who have credit cards.
Patrons who are under financial pressure from their credit-card obligations tend to tip less when presented with a restaurant bill on a tray with a credit-card logo than when the tray has no logo.
In virtually all of the cases in the studies, the patrons who paid bills in cash did not possess credit cards.
In general, restaurant patrons who pay their bills in cash leave larger tips than do those who pay by credit card.
The percentage of restaurant bills paid with a given brand .of credit card increases when that credit card's logo is displayed on the tray with which the bill is presented.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #111.
Which of the following most logically completes th...(Login to view remaining section)
many of the proponents of irradiation are food distributors who gain from foods' having a longer shelf life
it is clear that killing bacteria that may be present on food is not the only effect that irradiation has
cooking is usually the final step in preparing food for consumption, whereas irradiation serves to ensure a longer shelf life for perishable foods
certain kinds of cooking are, in fact, even more destructive of vitamin B than carefully controlled irradiation is
for food that is both irradiated and cooked, the reduction of vitamin Bl associated with either process individually is compounded
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #112.
Theater Critic: The play La Finestrina, now at Cen...(Login to view remaining section)
modern audiences would find it hard to tolerate certain characteristics of a historically accurate performance of an eighteenth-century play
Groucho Marx once performed the part of the character Harlequin in La Finestrina
in the United States the training of actors in the twentieth century is based on principles that do not differ radically from those that underlay the training of actors in eighteenth-century Italy
the performance of the actor who plays Harlequin in La Finestrina does not serve as evidence against the director's claim
the director of La Finestrina must have advised the actor who plays Harlequin to model his performance on comic performances of Groucho Marx
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #113.
Although the discount stores in Goreville's centra...(Login to view remaining section)
Many customers of Colson's are expected to do less shopping there than they did before the SpendLess store opened.
Increasingly, the stores that have opened in the central shopping district since Colson's opened have been discount stores.
At present, the central shopping district has as many stores operating in it as it ever had.
Over the course of the next five years, it is expected that Goreville's population will grow at a faster rate than it has for the past several decades.
Many stores in the central shopping district sell types of merchandise that are not available at either SpendLess or Colson's.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #114.
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city...(Login to view remaining section)
This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this, year than it did last year.
The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #115.
Springfield Fire Commissioner: The vast majority o...(Login to view remaining section)
The fire department traces all alarm calls made from private telephones and records where they came from.
Maintaining the fire alarm boxes costs Springfield approximately $5 million annually,
A telephone call can provide the fire department with more information about the nature and size of a fire than can an alarm placed from an alarm box.
Responding to false alarms significantly reduces the fire department's capacity for responding to fires.
On any given day, a significant percentage of the public telephones in Springfield are out of service.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #116.
The average hourly wage of television assemblers i...(Login to view remaining section)
The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.
Televisions assembled in Vernland have features that televisions assembled in Borodia do not have.
The average number of hours it takes a Borodian television assembler to assemble a television has not decreased significantly during the past three years.
The number of televisions assembled annually in Vernland has increased significantly during the past three years.
The difference between the hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland and the hourly wage of television assemblers in Borodia is likely to decrease in the next few years.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #117.
Guidebook writer: I have visited hotels throughout...(Login to view remaining section)
The quality of original carpentry in hotels is generally far superior to the quality of original carpentry in other structures, such as houses and stores.
Hotels built since 1930 can generally accommodate more guests than those built before 1930.
The materials available to carpenters working before 1930 were not significantly different in quality from the materials available to carpenters working after 1930.
The better the quality of original carpentry in a building, the less likely that building is to fall into disuse and be demolished.
The average length of apprenticeship for carpenters has declined significantly since 1930.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #118.
Scientists typically do their most creative work b...(Login to view remaining section)
The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.
The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.
The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.
The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #119.
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a b...(Login to view remaining section)
Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #120.
Vargonia has just introduced a legal requirement t...(Login to view remaining section)
Whether in Vargonia there are any schools not funded by the government that offer children an education free of charge
Whether the number of qualified applicants for teaching positions in government-funded schools increases significantly during economic recessions
What the current student-teacher ratio in Vargonia's government-funded schools is
What proportion of Vargonia's workers currently hold jobs as teachers in government-funded schools
Whether in the past a number of government funded schools in Vargonia have had student teacher ratios well in excess of the new limit
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #122.
An experiment was done in which human subjects rec...(Login to view remaining section)
The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
The energy expenditure of the subjects' brains increases, when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest.
 
     
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OG2016   CR Practice #123.
One way to judge the performance of a company is t...(Login to view remaining section)
Comparisons with competitors are most likely to focus on practices that the manager making the comparisons already employs.
Getting "inside" information about the unique practices of competitors is particularly difficult.
Since companies that compete with each other are likely to have comparable levels of efficiency, only benchmarking against noncompetitors is likely to reveal practices that would aid in beating competitors.
Managers are generally more receptive to new ideas that they find outside their own industry.
Much of the success of good companies is due to their adoption of practices that take advantage of the special circumstances of their products or markets
 
     
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% Breakdown of OG CR questions
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