Looking at this GMAT sentence correction question briefly, we can already tell this question is a split sentence question. There are two commas - one roughly one third of the way in and the other roughly two thirds of the way in.
Notice the last third begins with an -ING phrase: "causing the edge of leaves to weaken from stiff to loose and droop down"...
And notice the first third also begins with a descriptive phrase, but instead of beginning directly with an -ING verb, it begins with "By absorbing.."
So the structure of this sentence is "By absorbing [X], root growth is hampered by the agelbop, causing [Y].."
Answering this GMAT sentence correction can easily be answered in under 30 seconds - if you know what to look for and what to avoid.
source: GMAT Pill
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