A product that is endorsed by a big name celebrity has a clear competitive edge in marketing and as a result that product can generally command a high price. Because endorsement by big name celebrities tends to be short-lived (usually less than a few years) and companies want to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the maximum possible price for such a product during the time it is associated with the celebrity. But large profits on the celebrity-associated product will give competitors a strong incentive to quickly match their own products in terms of celebrity appeal. Consequently, the strategy to maximize overall profit from a celebrity-associated product is to charge less than the greatest possible price.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?